- India and Pakistan, since independence, have failed to establish an amicable relationship.
- Various pacts, treaties, ceasefire agreements have been violated and contended every now and then.
- This has led to a restive situation in this region of South Asia and has become a hotspot of conflicts and contentions.
Key issues between India and Pakistan:
Today, one major issue would be covered comprehensively.
- Kashmir Issue:
- Major contention is historical in nature.
- Division of India–> Jinnah claimed all Muslim majority states to be a part of Pakistan–>Kashmir: 75% Muslims.
- But–> Raja Hari Singh(the erstwhile King of Kashmir) claimed an independent state (separate from India and Pakistan)
- Pakistan raided Kashmir valley with infiltrators.
- Hari Singh signed the Instrument of Accession(a document which confirmed the acceptance of sovereignty of India/Pakistan) with India
- India provided military assistance and defeated Pakistan in a war that was waged.
- Now, Pakistan continues to claim KASHMIR on Muslim majority ground while officially it is a part of India.
- Ceasefire Violations:
- Ceasefire agreement–> between India and Pakistan post-1947 war –>sought U.N arbitration with an assurance of plebiscite–> modified to Line of Control after Shimla Agreement(1972).
- This demarcated the regions belonging to each of the nation-states.
- Pakistan: Gilgit-Baltistan and Azad Kashmir(North-Western part of the erstwhile princely state of J & K )–> this is what is called as Pakistan Occupied Kashmir(PoK)
- India: Rest of the erstwhile princely state of J & K.
- INDIA: Whole region including the Azad Kashmir.
- PAKISTAN: Whole of Kashmir including the territory under the control of India.
- In order to establish its claim –> Pakistan continues to violate the ceasefire agreement across the LoC.
- Cross-border infiltration.
- Radicalisation by separatists in the Kashmir Valley.
- Loss of lives of civilians.
- Secessionist tendencies.
- Import of terrorism through Pakistan.
- Who is at fault in this whole issue from a holistic point of view?:
- India’s fault: Wrong timing of declaration of ceasefire in the 1947 war–>this led to the loss of a portion of J&K to Pakistan.
- Pakistan’s faults:
- Claims of territory based on an archaic claim of Muslim majority. Rational claims are lacking.
- Continuously violating the official agreements.
- Sponsors infiltrators in the valley causing restive situations.
- Disrupts peace talks by including non-state actors in the negotiations.
- Way Ahead for INDIA:
- Bilateral: Comprehensive bilateral dialogue comprising of a phased process of talks establishing a consensus over various issues.
- Article 370 must be maintained till a complete pro-India stance is consolidated in the valley.
- India must embolden the development process in the Kashmir valley in an all inclusive manner. This could pacify the rising extremism in the valley.
- Preventive measures:
- Advanced technologies like floodlights, UAVs could be used by India across the border to check infiltration.
- India, must strategically through international engagement, formalize LoC as an official border between India and Pakistan.
Following is the mindmap of the above topic:
The rest of the issues will be covered in the upcoming parts of this series of articles.
Next: Indus Water Treaty, 1960