The India and Pakistan imbroglio(1): The Kashmir issue(with Mindmap)


  • India and Pakistan, since independence, have failed to establish an amicable relationship.
  • Various pacts, treaties, ceasefire agreements have been violated and contended every now and then.
  • This has led to a restive situation in this region of South Asia and has become a hotspot of conflicts and contentions.

Key issues between India and Pakistan:

Today, one major issue would be covered comprehensively.

  • Kashmir Issue:
    • About
      • Major contention is historical in nature.
      • Division of India–> Jinnah claimed all Muslim majority states to be a part of Pakistan–>Kashmir: 75% Muslims.
      • But–> Raja Hari Singh(the erstwhile King of Kashmir) claimed an independent state (separate from India and Pakistan)
      • Pakistan raided Kashmir valley with infiltrators.
      • Hari Singh signed the Instrument of Accession(a document which confirmed the acceptance of sovereignty of India/Pakistan) with India
      • India provided military assistance and defeated Pakistan in a war that was waged.
      • Now, Pakistan continues to claim KASHMIR on Muslim majority ground while officially it is a part of India.
    • Ceasefire Violations:
      • Ceasefire agreement–> between India and Pakistan post-1947 war –>sought U.N arbitration with an assurance of plebiscite–> modified to Line of Control after Shimla Agreement(1972).
      • This demarcated the regions belonging to each of the nation-states.
      • Pakistan: Gilgit-Baltistan and Azad Kashmir(North-Western part of the erstwhile princely state of J & K )–> this is what is called as Pakistan Occupied Kashmir(PoK)
      • India: Rest of the erstwhile princely state of J & K.
      • Claims:
        • INDIA: Whole region including the Azad Kashmir.
        • PAKISTAN: Whole of Kashmir including the territory under the control of India.
      • In order to establish its claim –> Pakistan continues to violate the ceasefire agreement across the LoC.


  • Implications:
    • Cross-border infiltration.
    • Radicalisation by separatists in the Kashmir Valley.
    • Loss of lives of civilians.
    • Secessionist tendencies.
    • Import of terrorism through Pakistan.
    • Who is at fault in this whole issue from a holistic point of view?:
      • India’s fault: Wrong timing of declaration of ceasefire in the 1947 war–>this led to the loss of a portion of J&K to Pakistan.
      • Pakistan’s faults:
        • Claims of territory based on an archaic claim of Muslim majority. Rational claims are lacking.
        • Continuously violating the official agreements.
        • Sponsors infiltrators  in the valley causing restive situations.
        • Disrupts peace talks by including non-state actors in the negotiations.
    • Way Ahead for INDIA:
      • Political:
        • Bilateral: Comprehensive bilateral dialogue comprising of a phased process of talks establishing a consensus over various issues.
        • Unilateral: 
          • Article 370 must be maintained till a complete pro-India stance is consolidated in the valley.
      • Social:
        • India must embolden the development process in the Kashmir valley in an all inclusive manner. This could pacify the rising extremism in the valley.
      • Preventive measures:
        • Advanced technologies like floodlights, UAVs could be used by India across the border to check infiltration.
      • Strategic:
        • India, must strategically through international engagement, formalize LoC as an official border between India and Pakistan.


Following is the mindmap of the above topic:



The rest of the issues will be covered in the upcoming parts of this series of articles.

Next: Indus Water Treaty, 1960


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