Constitution Day Special: Basics

Last year, 26th November was declared as the Constitution Day. Here are a few basic points regarding the Indian Constitution.

Image result for indian constitution

  • When was the constitution adopted?:
    • 26th November, 1949.
    • The reason for its declaration as the Constitution Day.
  • When was it enacted and why?:
    • 26th January, 1950.
    • This date has a historical significance.
    • On this date in 1929, at Lahore session, the PURNA SWARAJ(Complete Independence) was declared as the only goal of the Indian National Congress.
  • How many articles were there in the constitution at the time of adoption?:
    • In the beginning, there were 395 Articles.
    • Through Constitutional amendments, now the number has reached around 450.
  • How many parts are there in the constitution?:
    • These are broad but specific topics of the constitution.
    • There are 22 parts of the constitution.
  • How many schedules are there in the constitution?:
    • Schedules are the list in the constitution which categorize government policies and bureaucratic activities.
    • These are like appendices.
    • There are 12 schedules of the Indian constitutions.
  • Who were the members of the Drafting Committee?
    • Dr. B.R Ambedkar: Chairman.
    • N Gopal Swamy Aiyangar.
    • Alladi Krishnaswami Ayyar.
    • K.M. Munshi.
    • Syed Muhammad Saadullah.
    • N Madhav Rao.
    • TT Krishnakarmachari.
  • What are some of the basic features of our constitution?:
    • Lengthiest written constitution:
      • Around 450 articles, 22 parts, and 12 schedules
    • Drawn from multiple sources. A few instances: 
      • Fundamental Rights : U.S
      • Fundamental duties: USSR.
      • Directive Principles of State Policy: Ireland.
      • Parliamentary government: Britain.
      • Federation with a strong centre: Canada.
    • Federal with a unitary bias:
      • It means that though the constitution has upheld the distribution of powers among various tiers(federalism) but the centre still has been given a greater say in a number of aspects(unitary).
      • This means that The Constitution of India is quasi-federal.
    • Rigid+ flexible:
      • Flexible as it provides for the provision of amending the constitution(Article 368)
      • Rigid as the procedure of amending the constitution is complex and requires a large amount of cooperation.
    • Parliamentary form of government:
      • Here, the executive is a part of the legislature.
      • The government is run by the Council of Minister headed by the Prime Minister.
    • Independent Judiciary:
      • Judiciary, however, is independent from the other two organs of the Indian polity.
      • This ensures impartial enforcement of justice
    • Fundamental Rights and Duties
    • Directive Principle of State Policies.
    • Universal Adult Franchise:
      • Every adult has the right to vote.
    • Single Citizenship:
      • One citizenship of the country India and no state-wise citizenship.
    • Three-tier government.
      • Tier 1: Central Government.
      • Tier 2: State Government.
      • Tier 3: Panchayati Raj Institutions(PRIs)/ Urban Level Governments(ULBs)
    • Emergency provisions
  • How does the constitution play a significant role for us?:
    • It empowers the citizens with fundamental rights.
    • It encourages the state to take necessary steps(mentioned in the Directive Principles of State Policy) to create an ideal nation.
    • It creates order in the polity of our country.
    • It is an ideal codification of “can and can’t” , “do’s and dont’s”  among others for the citizens and the state.
    • A country without constitution cannot be a democratic one.
    • The constitution brings the reminiscence of the struggle of our freedom fighters and the efforts of the constitutional fathers.
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